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A Brief History of U.S. Government Funded
Psychological and Torture Experiments
They were funded by the CIA, Army, Navy, Air Force, and by other agencies including the Public Health Service and the Scottish Rite Foundation. Besides hefty amounts of funding, these agencies showed a tenacious, maniacal creativity, diversity and breath of scope; from infecting people with life threatening or debilitating diseases, exposure to chemical and biological weapons, human radiation experiments, injections with toxic chemicals, radioactive chemicals, surgical experiments, interrogation/torture experiments, mind-altering substances, and the list of techniques, research, experiments could go on to fill an encyclopedia.
The Cold War era not only brought fear and paranoia, it became a decisive propagator in the funding of psychological experiments.
Project PAPERCLIP was created after World War II in order to organize and mandate the thousands of German scientists who possessed scientific and industrial expertise, which U.S. intelligence agencies deemed vital, and above all, they should not be lost to the control of other nations. The United States as well as the French, British and Russians fiercely competed for the control of these elite talents. These battles lead to the creation of Project PAPERCLIP, which in turn, secretly brought into the U.S. over 1,000 German scientists without confirmation from the State Department. The star of this batch of German scientists was the brilliant Werner von Braun who later headed the group that built the rockets that took Neil Armstrong to the moon.
The modern era in U.S. funded Torture Research starts with...Project PAPERCLIP
Amobarbital, a chemical compound implemented as a "truth drug".
U.S. Funded Human Experimentation From Cold War To Present:
Little (loop) Movie - of torture scenes in labs
October, 1947 - The U.S. Navy began experimentations with drugs like mescaline and scopolamine; for interrogations and in the recruitment of Naval agents. The research included experiments on animals and humans. Dr. Charles Savage of the Naval Medical Research Institute, Bethesda, Maryland headed the research from 1947 to 1953. The reason given for the termination of this program was due to a lack of progress, especially when compared to the success of other programs.
Timeline focus: Major experiment initiatives.
BLUEBIRD was approved by the CIA on April 20, 1950. The primary objective was to develop precise methods in order to create multiple personality disorders. These experimentations were created and implemented by psychiatrists.
August 1951, Project BLUEBIRD was renamed ARTICHOKE. The focus of this project revolved around analyzing how to implement effectively; hypnosis, forced morphine addiction followed by forced withdrawal in order to induce amnesia and/or other fragile psychological states.
April 13, 1953 - CIA Director, Allen Welsh Dulles instructed Sidney Gottlieb that Project ARTICHOKE would become Project MKULTRA. This project fused together several CIA interrogation and mind-control experimental projects into one program run thru the CIA's Office of Scientific Intelligence (OSI).
Project QKHILLTOP (Sub-Project of MKULTRA)
1954 - The main objective was to study Chinese brainwashing techniques, as well as developing effective interrogation procedures.
Operation Midnight Climax (Sub-Project of MKULTRA)
1956 (unofficial) - A CIA run network of safe houses in New York, San Francisco and Marin (SF Bay Area) were created to study the effects of LSD on unsuspecting individuals.
June 7, 1964 - Project MKULTRA was rolled into Project MKSEARCH, which ran until June, 1972 whereupon the CIA Director, Richard Helms order a mass shredding of MKULTRA and MKSEARCH documents. The project was allocated 6 percent of the CIA's total funds. The research spanned over 80 institutions including 44 colleges and universities, hospitals, prisons and pharmaceutical companies.
"The process by which individual or collective freedom of choice and action is compromised by agents or agencies that modify or distort perception, motivation, affect, cognition and/or behavioral outcomes."
Project MKULTRA explored a multitude of methodologies to manipulate mental states in order to control the actions and thought patterns of individuals. This was the all-in-one mind control R&D experimentation incubator: drugs, chemicals, isolation, verbal abuse, sexual abuse, sensory deprivation, hypnosis along with experimental as well as traditional torture methods.
The force that provoked this path by the CIA came almost exclusively from alleged intelligence gathered from China, Russia and North Korea regarding their use of mind control techniques on prisoners. The CIA not only wanted to incorporate these techniques on captives they also wanted to use them to manipulate leaders of other countries, and several covert operations were directed at Fidel Castro.
It is believed that most of these initial studies were secretly performed under the direction of Dr. Harold Wolff of the Cornell University Medical School's human ecology program.
The CIA employed prostitutes to bring back unsuspecting individuals to one of the many safe houses where they were sometimes forced or unknowingly administered a wide variety of elicit substances and often times the victims were studied behind one-way mirrors. The noted categories that were explored were in surveillance technology, sexual blackmail, hallucinogens in field operations and interrogation techniques.
MIND CONTROL METHODS
Persuasion & Control
- Philip Zimbardo
(Psychologist and Professor Emeritus - Stanford University.)
Three Principles of Re-Education
Going through the same subject over and over again until it is known by heart.
The subjects are never left alone nor given any private time of their own, they are always in activity.
CRITICISM AND SELF-CRITICISM The subjects are supposed to feel uncertain; under the constant threat of being humiliated and despised.
Deprogramming are calculated methods to force an individual to vanquish their bond to a political, economic, social or religious belief. These strategies have also involved extortion, kidnapping, murder as well as any form of persuasion to fulfill mandated objectives.
FIVE STAGES OF DEPROGRAMMING
(Cited from the book All God's children: The Cult Experience - Salvation or Slavery? by Carroll Stoner and Jo Anne Parke. A non-fiction book on religious cults, including their indoctrination methodologies.)
1. Discredit the figure of authority: the cult leader.
2. Present contradictions (ideology versus reality)
Example: "How can he preach love when he exploits people?"
3. The breaking point: When a subject begins to listen to the deprogrammer;
when reality begins to take precedence over ideology.
4. Self-expression: When the subject begins to open up and voice gripes
against the cult.
5. Identification and transference: when the subject begins to identify with
the deprogrammers, and starts to think of him or herself as an opponent
of the cult rather than a member of it.
Psychoactive Drugs to Alter Cognitive Behavior
Chemical Substances in use:
Temazepam ethanol, scopolamine, 3-quinuclidinyl benzilate, and barbiturate families including sodium thiopental (sodium pentothal) and sodium amytal (amobarbital).
Truth serum (or truth drug) was created by Dr. William Bleckwenn M.D., (1930) and soon after the science of Narcosynthesis formed; employing practices with its origins from, "narco-hypnosis". Narco-hypnosis uses assorted narcotics to stimulate divergent types of hypnotic states.
The CIA in 1963 combined many of the discovers from its psychological research into a report known as the KUBARK Counterintelligence Interrogation Handbook, referencing the MKULTRA studies and other secret research programs as the scientific foundation for their interrogation tactics. The research spanned over 80 institutions including 44 colleges and universities, hospitals, prisons and pharmaceutical companies.
A new identity is implanted
Amnesia barriers are created
Hippolyte Taine, French philosopher and historian, in 1871 created the first modern account of crowd psychology. Gustave Le Bon developed this structure in his book, Psychologie des Foules, (1895). He presented the concept that crowds could be turned into illogical mobs, easily manipulated by nefarious forces. He theorized that the discordant elements which make up this particular crowd architecture form a new personality, like a chemical reaction in which the crowd's dynamics transform. Le Bon's theories formed the Classical Model of Crowd psychology.
The Classical Model was taken and developed by U.S. Intelligence experimentation projects and also studied by major universities around the world and the Modern Model is now commonly known as the Elaborated Social Identity Model (ESIM).
Conscious Personality Disolve For a Collective Mind Formation
MKULTRA exercise continued until 1973 when CIA director Richard Helms, fearing public disclosure, terminated the project and ordered extensive shredding. The surviving MKULTRA documents can be obtained from the CIA under the Freedom of Information Act. There was an uncovering of declassification of mind control documents in the 1970's which became the primary basis for the books published in the 1970's and 1980's.
Little (loop) Movie - of torture scenes in labs
By COOKIE STONE
& STEVE J.F. | December 9, 2012
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